The formation of correct posture in children largely depends on the environment. The duty of parents, and employees of preschools and schools is to follow the correct position of children in standing, sitting and walking, and use exercises that develop primarily the muscles of the back, legs and abdomen. This is to ensure that the child has developed the natural muscular corset.
About the spine and its changes
The spine (vertebral column) is a major part of the axial skeleton and consists of 33-34 vertebrae, which are connected by ligaments and joints.
In the womb baby's spine looks like a uniform arc. When a child of the light, it straightens the spine and becomes almost a straight line. From the moment of birth begins to form posture. If you have the skills hold the head in a raised position, the cervical spine of the baby occurs gradually bending forward, the so-called cervical lordosis. If the time has come when the child already knows how to sit, thoracic spine is also shaped bending, only facing backwards (kyphosis). But if the child begins to walk, the lumbar with a slight curve with the convexity facing forward. This lumbar lordosis. It is therefore important to follow the correct formation of a child's posture.
About posture and its violations
Posture is the ability of the individual to keep their body in different positions. It is right and wrong.
Posture is correct when the relaxed standing person, being in his usual position, does the extra active stress and keeps your head and body straight. In addition, he has an easy gait, slightly lowered and laid back shoulders forward facing chest, tight stomach and legs, straight in knees.
Improper posture of the person is not able to correctly keep your body, therefore, as a rule, stands and moves on the floor-legs bent, shoulders and head, and thrusting the abdomen. In this posture interferes with the normal functioning of internal organs.
Various violations of posture, whether slouching, lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis (curvature of the spine) is quite common in children of preschool and school age. Mostly they are children or physically impaired, or suffering from a chronic illness, or have suffered from a heavy disease in early childhood.
Prevention of postural disorders
The prevention of any disorders related to posture, should be comprehensive and be based on the following principles.
The constantly developing body of the child throughout the growth needs nutrients. The diet should be complete and varied, as this depends on how correct will be the development of muscles and bones.
The locomotor activity.
Very important for children's health posture exercise, various sports (especially skiing and swimming), gymnastics, and tourism, active outdoor games, etc. Should be aware that upon physical development should not force a child to do sharp and quick loads.
Correct mode of the day.
To avoid problems with posture not only need to arrange the correct mode of the day (walking, sleeping, waking, feeding, etc.), but stick to it, without making any exception, for example, at the weekend.
Comfortable children's room.
- The room should have good lighting. An extra Desk lamp should be equipped with children's Desk.
- The table height should match the height of the child. There are also special desks that are designed to correct posture of the student.
- The chair should repeat the curves of the body. However, instead of this orthopedic chair can be put behind your back at the level of the lumbar cushion in addition to the regular chair. The height of the chair should ideally be equal to the height of the lower leg. Use a footrest, if they don't reach the floor.
- The child should sit so that his back rested on the chair back, and head slightly bent forward, and between the body and the table easily held one hand over the edge. When they get impossible to remove legs under yourself, as this can cause curvature of the spine and circulatory problems.
- In the nursery beds should be flat and hard mattress. With this type the child's weight is distributed evenly and the muscles as relax after a the vertical position of the trunk all day. Do not let the baby sleep on soft surfaces. This provokes the formation of the irregular curves of the spine during sleep. In addition, a soft mattress encourages warming of the intervertebral disc, which is excited thermo-regulation. Regarding child cushion, it should be flat and be placed exclusively under my head, and not under the shoulders.
Competent correction shoes.
Correct, accurate and timely selection of children's shoes allows parents to avoid it and even eliminate many of the problems such as functional shortening of the limb, resulting from incorrect posture or the compensation of defects of feet (clubfoot, flat feet).
Uniform load distribution.
It is known that most often it is in school age, when children experience rapid growth of bone and muscle mass, they, unfortunately, acquire a curvature of the spine. This is due to the fact that at this age the child's spine is not adapted to heavy loads. Parents should try not to overload the child when wearing them knapsack, rucksack or briefcase. Remember that the standard weight which is allowed to raise the child, is 10% of the total body mass.
Back school backpack should be flat and solid, its width should not be more than shoulder width. Also the pack should not be below the belt, and the straps must be soft and wide, adjustable length. It is unacceptable for a long time wearing heavy bags on one shoulder, which is especially important for girls. In this case, the curvature of the spine may be unavoidable.
As for the right of carrying heavy loads, it is known that lean and take the weight and raise it – this is a huge burden on the spine and you can't do that. Correct would be to sit down first with a flat back, then take, pressed against his chest, lifting and carrying. And as advice to parents: even if you do not follow this rule, and teach it to your child.
The formation of correct posture
To stimulate growth and develop the muscles of the child can safely start from the moment of his birth. So their growth and strength will develop faster. For infants, a great help in this is the massage (by prescription).
The kid at the age of 2-3 months you can begin doing exercises for training muscle groups that are responsible for holding the body in the correct position. It's enough to be with her palms to raise a child, moving from position "lying" in the "up" position, and then long to hold him in the air. In this position the muscles and joints of the baby are to move, training all muscle groups.
After 1.5 years in the form of a game with a child can begin to do gymnastics. Together you can "chop wood", "cat" arch your back, "to pump water" walk on the drawn lines, like the rope, rolling on the floor, to pass the obstacle, etc. you Can ask your child to draw a bird: lie on your stomach, "spread wings" (arms out to the sides) and hold the ankles of the feet.
Posture of the child is formed before puberty. All this time, you must follow its formation. If a child already, there was a definite violation, until that period it can be corrected. The child should regularly visit the podiatrist while he's on the account and go through all the available types of treatment. This can be a therapeutic exercise, swimming, massage, physiotherapy, manual therapy, and surgical treatment (according to indications).
For the formation of correct posture in children and prevent violations during the lessons of morning gymnastics, physical culture and during these moments at home and mainly in preschool and school institutions can use a variety of useful exercises. The following are examples of such exercises.
- A child stands on one foot or walking on the balance beam.
- Holding back the Hoop, the child does tilt to the side.
- Holding the stick, the child crouches, standing on his toes.
- Spreading his arms in hand, the child does move back.
- With your feet apart and holding a stick, baby, giving, doing forward bends.
- The child raises legs up, lying on his back.
- A child crawls on all fours.
- The child, while maintaining correct posture, walking, holding any load on the head.
- Hands down the child holds the stick at the ends and raises his hands up, bringing the stick behind his back, and then alternates between the slopes of the left and right.
- Using the horizontal bar or wall bars, the child, firmly clutching the bar, flexes the foot at a right angle and is in this position for a few seconds.
- Being in position "feet together, arms down", the child removes your right leg back and extending his arms to the side and freezes, then repeats the exercise with the left leg.
- Lying on back, child with feet "familiar" or represents "scissors".
- Lying on the stomach, the child lifts the knees bent legs, grabs your hands, ankles and begins to rock like a boat on the waves.
- Standing before the mirror, the child, alternating, first breaks, and then corrects your posture.
- The child becomes to the wall of the five points (head, shoulders, buttocks, calves and heels). These points are the basic curves of our body to the outside and normally should be in contact with the wall. Then it performs various movements such as squats or raising the legs and hands apart, straining the muscles in an average of 5 seconds.
Dear parents, to remind and to tell the child "Sit up straight" of course, but that was not enough. Start to worry about the health of their kids "from the cradle" and be sure to find time to practice with them. An important moment in the formation of correct posture of the child is a personal example. Do the exercises with your child, keep your back straight and be healthy!